Features of structure formation of surface layers with high content of boron on steel 15Х11МФ in the conditions of furnace and induction heating
The results of obtaining borated layers on 15H11MF high-alloy steel under equilibrium and non-equilibrium heating conditions are presented. Equilibrium conditions were achieved by slow furnace heating (with a heating rate of 0.1 oC/s), non-equilibrium – by induction heating (with a heating rate of 100 oC/s). The heating was controlled by measuring the thermoelectric power by a thermocouple welded to the surface of the sample by electric contact welding. The signal from the thermocouple was digitized by the ADC and transmitted to a computer where, at high speed, an array of data of temperature-time dependence of the process was formed. Furnace heating was carried out in a laboratory electric furnace at 1130 оС ± 5 оС, 1150 оС ± 5 оС and 1160 оС ± 5 оС. Induction heating was carried out to temperatures of 1180 oC ± 20oC, 1200 oC ± 20oC, 1220 oC ± 20oC. The possibility of significant reduction of the treatment process from 3 hours to 2 minutes due to the intensifying action in non-equilibrium conditions of structure formation is shown. Boron saturation came from the paste. Saturating paste consisted of 60% boron carbide, 30% NaF, 10% CaF2. The method of metallographic research shows not only the morphological differences of the obtained surface layers, but also established the predominant mechanism of boron diffusion into high-alloy martensitic steel. During furnace heating (1150оС), a solid boron with a thickness of up to 50 μm and a hardness of 15100 MPa is formed. At a depth of up to 150 μm, grain boundary diffusion is noticeable, which obviously dominates in the processes of boron saturation of high-alloy steels. At temperatures of 1160 oC and furnace heating under a solid layer of boride with a thickness of 110 μm, a two-phase zone is formed, which consists of boride and a solid solution with a thickness of 70 μm. This layer is more defective. Induction heating with boron saturation forms a thick (up to 200 μm) layer of coarse boride crystallites (18900 – 9270 MPa) with an eutectic structure (6440 MPa), which becomes coarser with increasing temperature from 1180 to 1220 оС. The ability to obtain solid hardened layers in a short treatment time makes boron saturation from pastes a more attractive alternative among other chemical-heat treatment technologies.
2. Masumoto, H., Asada, A., Hasuyama, H, Nishio, K, Kato, M, Mukae, S. Diffusion bonding of tantalum and stainless. Welding International. 1997. P. 110 - 120.
3. Глухов, В.П. Боридные покрытия на железе и сталях. К.: Наукова Думка. 1970. 208 с.
4. Погрібний, М.А., Князєв, С.А. Борування конструкційних сталей з використанням насичуючих паст, Металознавство та обробка металів № 1. 2011. C. 33 – 38.
5. Криштал, М.А. Диффузионные процессы в железных сплавах. М.: Государственное научно-техническое издательство литературы по черной и цветной металлургии, 1963. 278 с.
6. Винаров, С.М. Бор, кальций, ниобий и цирконий в чугуне и стали. – М.: Государственное научно-техническое издательство литературы по черной и цветной металлургии. 1961. 459 с.
7. Mikhailov, I.F., Baturin, A.A., Mikhailov, A.I., Knyazev, S.A. Light element depth distribution by the intensity ratio of incoherent and coherent scattering. X-Ray Spectrometry. 2019. P. 1 – 7.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.